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Adobe Photoshop is a raster graphics editor developed and published by Adobe Inc. It was originally created in by Thomas and John Knoll. Since then, the software has become the industry standard not only in raster graphics editing, but in digital art as a whole.
The software’s name is often colloquially used as a verb e. In addition to raster graphics, Photoshop has limited abilities to edit or render text and vector graphics especially through clipping path for the latter , as well as 3D graphics and video.
Its feature set can be expanded by plug-ins ; programs developed and distributed independently of Photoshop that run inside it and offer new or enhanced features. Photoshop’s naming scheme was initially based on version numbers. However, in October following the introduction of Creative Suite branding , each new version of Photoshop was designated with ” CS ” plus a number; e.
With the introduction of the Creative Cloud branding in June and in turn, the change of the ” CS ” suffix to ” CC ” , Photoshop’s licensing scheme was changed to that of software as a service subscription model. As of November , Adobe has also released a full version of Photoshop for the iPad , and while initially limited, Adobe plans to bring more features to Photoshop for iPad. Photoshop was developed in by two brothers Thomas and John Knoll , who sold the distribution license to Adobe Systems Incorporated in Thomas Knoll, a Ph.
Thomas took a six-month break from his studies in to collaborate with his brother on the program. Thomas renamed the program ImagePro, but the name was already taken. During this time, John traveled to Silicon Valley and gave a demonstration of the program to engineers at Apple and Russell Brown, art director at Adobe. Both showings were successful, and Adobe decided to purchase the license to distribute in September Photoshop 1.
The handling of color slowly improved with each release from Adobe and Photoshop quickly became the industry standard in digital color editing.
At the time Photoshop 1. The list price of Photoshop 1. Photoshop was initially only available on Macintosh. The Windows port led to Photoshop reaching a wider mass market audience as Microsoft ‘s global reach expanded within the next few years. Photoshop files have default file extension as. PSD , which stands for ” P hoto s hop D ocument”. This is in contrast to many other file formats e. JPG or. GIF that restrict content to provide streamlined, predictable functionality.
A PSD file has a maximum height and width of 30, pixels, and a length limit of two gigabytes. These formats are required to use the file in publications or on the web. Photoshop can also create and use files with the extension.
PSB, which stands for “Photoshop Big” also known as “large document format”. The dimension limit was apparently chosen arbitrarily by Adobe, not based on computer arithmetic constraints it is not close to a power of two, as is 30, but for ease of software testing.
Photoshop functionality can be extended by add-on programs called Photoshop plugins or plug-ins. Adobe creates some plugins, such as Adobe Camera Raw, but third-party companies develop most plugins, according to Adobe’s specifications. Some are free and some are commercial software. Most plugins work with only Photoshop or Photoshop-compatible hosts, but a few can also be run as standalone applications.
There are various types of plugins, such as filter, export, import, selection, color correction, and automation.
The most popular plugins are the filter plugins also known as a 8bf plugins , available under the Filter menu in Photoshop. Filter plugins can either modify the current image or create content. Below are some popular types of plugins, and some well-known companies associated with them:. Adobe Camera Raw also known as ACR and Camera Raw is a special plugin, supplied free by Adobe, used primarily to read and process raw image files so that the resulting images can be processed by Photoshop.
Upon loading Photoshop, a sidebar with a variety of tools with multiple image-editing functions appears to the left of the screen. These tools typically fall under the categories of drawing ; painting ; measuring and navigation ; selection ; typing ; and retouching.
These can be expanded to reveal similar tools. In some newer versions hovering along the tools gives a small Video glimpse of the tool. Photoshop includes a few versions of the pen tool. The pen tool creates precise paths that can be manipulated using anchor points. The free form pen tool allows the user to draw paths freehand, and with the magnetic pen tool, the drawn path attaches closely to outlines of objects in an image, which is useful for isolating them from a background.
The Clone Stamp tool duplicates one part of an image to another part of the same image by way of a brush. The duplication is either in full or in part depending on the mode. The user can also clone part of one layer to another layer. The Clone Stamp tool is useful for duplicating objects or removing a defect in an image. Photoshop provides an array of shape tools including rectangles, rounded rectangles, ellipses, polygons and lines.
These shapes can be manipulated by the pen tool, direct selection tool etc. In addition, Photoshop provides its own shapes like animals, signs and plants.
The eyedropper tool selects a color from an area of the image that is clicked, and samples it for future use. Selection tools are used to select all or any part of a picture to perform cut, copy, edit, or retouching operations. The crop tool can be used to select a particular area of an image and discard the portions outside the chosen section.
This tool assists in creating a focus point on an image and unnecessary or excess space. The crop tool is in the tools palette, which is located on the right side of the document.
By placing the cursor over the image, the user can drag the cursor to the desired area. Once the Enter key is pressed, the area outside the rectangle will be cropped.
The area outside the rectangle is the discarded data, which allows for the file size to be decreased. The slice and slice select tools, like the crop tool, are used in isolating parts of images.
The slice tool can be used to divide an image into different sections, and these separate parts can be used as pieces of a web page design once HTML and CSS are applied. The move tool can be used to drag the entirety of a single layer or more if they are selected. Alternatively, once an area of an image is highlighted, the move tool can be used to manually relocate the selected piece to anywhere on the canvas.
The marquee is a tool that can make selections that are a single row, single column, rectangular and elliptical. This tool can also crop an image; it allows for better control. In contrast to the crop tool, the marquee tool allows for more adjustments to the selected area before cropping.
The only marquee tool that does not allow cropping is the elliptical. Although the single row and column marquee tools allow for cropping, they are not ideal, because they only crop a line. The rectangular marquee tool is the preferred option. Once the tool has been selected, dragging the tool across the desired area will select it. The selected area will be outlined by dotted lines, referred to as “marching ants”.
To set a specific size or ratio, the tool options bar provides these settings. Before selecting an area, the desired size or ratio must be set by adjusting the width and height.
Any changes such as color, filters, location, etc. To crop the selection, the user must go to the image tab and select crop. The lasso tool is similar to the marquee tool, however, the user can make a custom selection by drawing it freehand.
The regular lasso tool allows the user to have drawing capabilities. Photoshop will complete the selection once the mouse button is released. The user may also complete the selection by connecting the end point to the starting point. The “marching ants” will indicate if a selection has been made. The polygonal lasso tool will draw only straight lines, which makes it an ideal choice for images with many straight lines.
Unlike the regular lasso tool, the user must continually click around the image to outline the shape. To complete the selection, the user must connect the end point to the starting point just like the regular lasso tool. Magnetic lasso tool are considered the smart tool. It can do the same as the other two, but it can also detect the edges of an image once the user selects a starting point.
It detects by examining the color pixels as the cursor moves over the desired area. Closing the selection is the same as the other two, which should also should display the “marching ants” once the selection has been closed.
The quick selection tool selects areas based on edges, similarly to the magnetic lasso tool. The difference between this tool and the lasso tool is that there is no starting and ending point. For this reason, the selected area can be added onto as much as possible without starting over.
By dragging the cursor over the desired area, the quick selection tool detects the edges of the image. The “marching ants” allow the user to know what is currently being selected. Once the user is done, the selected area can be edited without affecting the rest of the image.
One of the features that makes this tool especially user friendly is that the SHIFT key is not needed to add more to the selection; by default, extra mouse clicks will be added to the selection rather than creating a new selection. The magic wand tool selects areas based on pixels of similar values.
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Early magazine advertisements featured in graphic design trade magazines such as Communication Arts referred to the product as “the Adobe Illustrator”. Illustrator 88, the product name for version 1. Byte in listed Illustrator 88 as among the “Distinction” winners of the Byte Awards, stating that with it Adobe had “pulled ahead” of previously industry-dominant competitor Aldus FreeHand.
Early versions of the software did not support working in preview mode and users needed to have two windows open on their desktop in order to have a live preview of their work. One window would show the work in progress and the other window would show a preview of the work in progress. Although during its first decade Adobe developed Illustrator primarily for Macintosh, it sporadically supported other platforms.
The first version of Illustrator for Windows, version 2. The next Windows version, version 4. Note that there were no versions 2. And there was no version 6 for Windows. Version 4 was, however, the first version of Illustrator to support editing in preview mode, which did not appear in a Macintosh version until 5. Version 6 was the last truly Macintosh version of Illustrator. The interface changed radically with the following version to bring consistency between Mac and Windows computer platforms.
The changes remained until CS6 when some small steps were taken to restore the app to a slightly more Mac-like interface. With the introduction of Illustrator 7 in , Adobe made critical changes in the user interface with regard to path editing and also to converge on the same user interface as Adobe Photoshop , and many users opted not to upgrade.
Like Photoshop, Illustrator also began supporting plug-ins, greatly and quickly extending its abilities. With true user interface parity between Macintosh and Windows versions starting with 7.
Adobe bought Aldus in for Page Maker. As a result, Macromedia acquired Free Hand in from its original developer, Altsys , and continued its development through Illustrator Version 9 included a tracing feature, similar to that within Adobe’s discontinued product Streamline.
Illustrator CS aka version 11 , released by Adobe for Mac and Windows in October , was the first version to include 3-dimensional capabilities allowing users to extrude or revolve shapes to create simple 3D objects. It was the last version for the Mac which did not run natively on Intel processors. Live Trace allows for the conversion of bitmap imagery into vector art and improved upon the previous tracing abilities.
Live Paint allows users more flexibility in applying color to objects, specifically those that overlap. Instead, Adobe would provide tools and support to ease the transition to Illustrator. Illustrator CS3 included interface updates to the Control Bar, the ability to align individual points, multiple Crop Areas, the Color Guide panel and the Live Color feature among others.
CS3 was released on March 27, CS4 was released in October It features a variety of improvements to old tools along with the introduction of a few brand-new tools acquired from FreeHand.
The ability to create multiple artboards is one of CS4’s main additions from Freehand. The artboards allow you to create multiple versions of a piece of work within a single document. Other tools include the Blob Brush, which allows multiple overlapping vector brush strokes to easily merge or join, and a revamped gradient tool allowing for more in-depth color manipulation as well as transparency in gradients.
CS5 was released in April Along with a number of enhancements to existing functionality, Illustrator CS5’s new features include a Perspective Grid tool taken from FreeHand, a Bristle Brush for more natural and painterly looking strokes and a comprehensive update to strokes, referred to by Adobe as “Beautiful Strokes”.
The app had many of the features of Adobe Illustrator, yet it was a free download. This allowed professionals to sketch and ideate “on the go” and allowed anyone to access world-class vector drawing capabilities. As a result, Facebook and social media posts appeared from all over the world with vector drawings from Adobe Ideas from pros and novices alike. Version CS6 was the 16th generation of Adobe Illustrator. Adobe added many more features and several bug fixes such as a new user interface, layer panels, RGB codes, and color ramp to increase performance.
CS6 was released on April 23, This version the 17th was the first to be only sold in a subscription-based service model, in line with the other software in the formerly called Creative Suite. As part of Creative Cloud, this version brought improvements in that subject such as color, font and program settings syncing, saving documents to the cloud, and integration with Behance a creative collaborative network , as well as other features such as a new touch-compatible type tool, images in brushes, CSS extraction, and files packaging.
Starting with version 1. John Warnock desired a Renaissance image to evoke his vision of PostScript as a new Renaissance in publishing, and Adobe employee Luanne Seymour Cohen, who was responsible for the early marketing material, found Venus’ flowing tresses a perfect vehicle for demonstrating Illustrator’s strength in tracing smooth curves over bitmap source images. Over the years the rendition of this image on Illustrator’s splash screen and packaging became more stylized to reflect features added in each version.
The image of Venus was replaced albeit still accessible via easter egg in Illustrator CS The CS4 icon is almost identical, except for a slight alteration to the font and the color which is dark gray. The CS5 icon is also virtually the same, except that this time the logo is like a box, along with all the other CS5 product logos, with the “Ai” bright yellow.
CS6 changed it a bit to a brown square with a yellow border and yellow lettering, and in CC the colors were upgraded to a sharper tone and thinner borders.
Compatibility with Inkscape :  Inkscape’s native format is SVG Scalable Vector Graphics , which is supported by Adobe Illustrator, but the two implementations are not fully compatible. A sidebar that appears at the left of the screen with a variety of tools to select, create, and manipulate objects or artworks in Illustrator.
These tools can be selected as following: drawing, typing, painting, reshaping, slicing and cutting, symbolism, moving and zooming, and graph. A small triangle has the option to view or expand some hidden tools by holding down the mouse button on the triangle. Some examples of basic tools in Illustrator are selection tools, paintbrush tools, pen tools, pencil tools e.
Selection tools are used to the layout, adjust, and organize the artwork by selecting, positioning, and stacking objects accurately. Moreover, selection tools can group, lock or hide, and measure objects. There are different types of brushes: calligraphic, scatter, art, pattern, and bristle. Pencil tools allow the user to draw and edit freehand lines.
Illustrator Draw is a free-form vector drawing app for Android and iOS users. Drawings made with the Illustrator Draw app can be exported to the desktop programs of Adobe Illustrator.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Vector graphics editor from Adobe Inc. Adobe Inc. October 26, Retrieved October 29, Retrieved December 4, September 20, By selecting Brushes and right clicking, the Color Replacement Tool is the third option down. What is important to note with this tool is the foreground color. The foreground color is what will be applied when painting along the chosen part of the image with the Color Replacement tool.
Photoshop and derivatives such as Photoshopped or just Shopped have become verbs that are sometimes used to refer to images edited by Photoshop,  or any image manipulation program. The same happens not only in English but as the Portuguese Wikipedia entry for image manipulation attests, even in that language, with the trademark being followed by the Portuguese verb termination -ar, yielding the word “photoshopar” to photoshop.
Such derivatives are discouraged by Adobe  because, in order to maintain validity and protect the trademark from becoming generic , trademarks must be used as proper nouns. Photoshop’s naming scheme was initially based on version numbers, from version 0. Adobe published 7 major and many minor versions before the October introduction of version 8. In February Adobe donated the source code of the 1. The first Photoshop CS was commercially released in October as the eighth major version of Photoshop.
Photoshop CS increased user control with a reworked file browser augmenting search versatility, sorting and sharing capabilities and the Histogram Palette which monitors changes in the image as they are made to the document. Match Color was also introduced in CS, which reads color data to achieve a uniform expression throughout a series of pictures. Photoshop CS2, released in May , expanded on its predecessor with a new set of tools and features.
It included an upgraded Spot Healing Brush, which is mainly used for handling common photographic problems such as blemishes, red-eye, noise, blurring and lens distortion.
One of the most significant inclusions in CS2 was the implementation of Smart Objects, which allows users to scale and transform images and vector illustrations without losing image quality, as well as create linked duplicates of embedded graphics so that a single edit updates across multiple iterations. Adobe responded to feedback from the professional media industry by implementing non-destructive editing as well as the producing and modifying of Bit High Dynamic Range HDR images, which are optimal for 3D rendering and advanced compositing.
FireWire Previews could also be viewed on a monitor via a direct export feature. Image Warping makes it easy to digitally distort an image into a shape by choosing on-demand presets or by dragging control points. The File Browser was upgraded to Adobe Bridge, which functioned as a hub for productivity, imagery and creativity, providing multi-view file browsing and smooth cross-product integration across Adobe Creative Suite 2 software.
Camera Raw version 3. Photoshop CS2 brought a streamlined interface, making it easier to access features for specific instances. In CS2 users were also given the ability to create their own custom presets, which was meant to save time and increase productivity. CS3 improves on features from previous versions of Photoshop and introduces new tools. One of the most significant is the streamlined interface which allows increased performance, speed, and efficiency.
There is also improved support for Camera RAW files which allow users to process images with higher speed and conversion quality.
The Black and White adjustment option improves control over manual grayscale conversions with a dialog box similar to that of Channel Mixer. There is more control over print options and better management with Adobe Bridge. The Clone Source palette is introduced, adding more options to the clone stamp tool. Other features include the nondestructive Smart Filters, optimizing graphics for mobile devices,  Fill Light and Dust Busting tools.
CS3 Extended includes everything in CS3 and additional features. There are tools for 3D graphic file formats, video enhancement and animation, and comprehensive image measurement and analysis tools with DICOM file support. As for video editing, CS3 supports layers and video formatting so users can edit video files per frame. They were also made available through Adobe’s online store and Adobe Authorized Resellers.
CS4 features smoother panning and zooming, allowing faster image editing at a high magnification. The interface is more simplified with its tab-based interface  making it cleaner to work with. Photoshop CS4 features a new 3D engine allowing the conversion of gradient maps to 3D objects, adding depth to layers and text, and getting print-quality output with the new ray-tracing rendering engine. It supports common 3D formats; the new Adjustment and Mask panels; content-aware scaling seam carving ;  fluid canvas rotation and File display options.
Adobe released Photoshop CS4 Extended, which has the features of Adobe Photoshop CS4, plus capabilities for scientific imaging, 3D, motion graphics, accurate image analysis and high-end film and video users. The faster 3D engine allows users to paint directly on 3D models, wrap 2D images around 3D shapes and animate 3D objects. Photoshop CS5 was launched on April 12, In May , Adobe Creative Suite 5. Its version of Photoshop, The community also had a hand in the additions made to CS5 as 30 new features and improvements were included by request.
These include automatic image straightening, the Rule-of-Thirds cropping tool, color pickup, and saving a bit image as a JPEG.
Another feature includes the Adobe Mini Bridge, which allows for efficient file browsing and management. A new materials library was added, providing more options such as Chrome, Glass, and Cork. The new Shadow Catcher tool can be used to further enhance 3D objects. For motion graphics, the tools can be applied to over more than one frame in a video sequence. Photoshop CS6, released in May , added new creative design tools and provided a redesigned interface  with a focus on enhanced performance.
Adobe Photoshop CS6 brought a suite of tools for video editing. Color and exposure adjustments, as well as layers, are among a few things that are featured in this new editor.
Upon completion of editing, the user is presented with a handful of options of exporting into a few popular formats. CS6 brings the “straighten” tool to Photoshop, where a user simply draws a line anywhere on an image, and the canvas will reorient itself so that the line drawn becomes horizontal, and adjusts the media accordingly.
This was created with the intention that users will draw a line parallel to a plane in the image, and reorient the image to that plane to more easily achieve certain perspectives. CS6 allows background saving, which means that while another document is compiling and archiving itself, it is possible to simultaneously edit an image.
CS6 also features a customizable auto-save feature, preventing any work from being lost. With version Adobe also announced that CS6 will be the last suite sold with perpetual licenses in favor of the new Creative Cloud subscriptions, though they will continue to provide OS compatibility support as well as bug fixes and security updates as necessary. Starting January 9, , CS6 is no longer available for purchase, making a Creative Cloud license the only purchase option going forward.
Photoshop CC As the next major version after CS6, it is only available as part of a Creative Cloud subscription. Major features in this version include new Smart Sharpen, Intelligent Upsampling, and Camera Shake Reduction for reducing blur caused by camera shake. Since the initial launch, Adobe has released two additional feature-bearing updates. The first, version The major features in this version were Adobe Generator, a Node. Photoshop Version CC features improvements to content-aware tools, two new blur tools spin blur and path blur and a new focus mask feature that enables the user to select parts of an image based on whether they are in focus or not.
Other minor improvements have been made, including speed increases for certain tasks. Photoshop CC was released on June 15, Adobe added various creative features including Adobe Stock, which is a library of custom stock images. It also includes and have the ability to have more than one layer style. The updated UI as of November 30, , delivers a cleaner and more consistent look throughout Photoshop, and the user can quickly perform common tasks using a new set of gestures on touch-enabled devices like Microsoft Surface Pro.
Photoshop CC was released on November 2, It introduced a new template selector when creating new documents, the ability to search for tools, panels and help articles for Photoshop, support for SVG OpenType fonts and other small improvements. Photoshop CC version 19 was released on October 18, It featured an overhaul to the brush organization system, allowing for more properties such as color and opacity to be saved per-brush and for brushes to be categorized in folders and sub-folders.
It also added brush stroke smoothing, and over brushes created by Kyle T. Webster following Adobe’s acquisition of his website, KyleBrush. Other additions were Lightroom Photo access, Variable font support, select subject, copy-paste layers, enhanced tooltips, panorama and HEIF support, PNG compression, increased maximum zoom level, symmetry mode, algorithm improvements to Face-aware and selection tools, color and luminance range masking, improved image resizing, and performance improvements to file opening, filters, and brush strokes.
Photoshop CC was released on October 15, Beginning with Photoshop CC version This version Introduced a new tool called Frame Tool to create placeholder frames for images. It also added multiple undo mode, auto-commitment, and prevented accidental panel moves with lock work-space.
Live blend mode previews are added, allowing for faster scrolling over different blend mode options in the layers panel. Other additions were Color Wheel, Transform proportionally without Shift key, Distribute spacing like in Illustrator, ability to see longer layer names, match font with Japanese fonts, flip document view, scale UI to font, reference point hidden by default, new compositing engine, which provides a more modern compositing architecture is added which is easier to optimize on all platforms.
Photoshop was released on November 4, It added several improvements to the new content-aware fill and to the new document tab. Also added were animated GIF support, improved lens blur performance and one-click zoom to a layer’s contents. It introduced new swatches, gradients, patterns, shapes and stylistic sets for OpenType fonts.
Presets are now more intuitive to use and easier to organize. With the February update version This version improved GPU based lens blur quality and provided performance improvements, such as accelerating workflows with smoother panning, zooming and navigation of documents.
Version 21 was the first version where the iPad version was released. It introduced faster portrait selection, Adobe Camera Raw improvements, auto-activated Adobe Fonts, rotatable patterns, and improved Match Font.
This is the first macOS release to run natively on Apple silicon. Content Credentials Beta was introduced. When enabled, the editing information is captured in a tamper-evident form and resides with the file through successive copy generations. It aligns with the C2PA standard on digital provenance across the internet. The Adobe Photoshop family is a group of applications and services made by Adobe Inc.
Several features of the Adobe Photoshop family are pixel manipulating, image organizing, photo retouching, and more. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Raster graphics editing software. For the colloquial verb meaning photograph manipulation, see Photoshop verb. For other uses, see Photoshop disambiguation.
For the vector graphics language, see PostScript. Adobe Photoshop Thomas Knoll John Knoll. List of languages. Main article: Photoshop plugin. This section may need to be rewritten to comply with Wikipedia’s quality standards.
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